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Judging from the amount of “views” to my Lizzie Borden blog post a couple years back, people are relatively interested in her story. So I thought I’d add just a few more facts in case people want more info.Here’s one thing that jumped out at me—Lizzie’s biological mother, who died when Lizzie was 2, was prone to fits of unexplained rage and suffered from migraines. Of course at this period of time (1845) we knew very little about psychology. Freud, the father of psychology, wasn’t even born yet. That being the case, we can’t really know what caused these symptoms, whether it was physical or psychological. If it was physical, such as a brain tumor, that would explain the migraines, the temper and Sarah’s death. In that case, there’d be no link to Lizzie, as there’s no indication that she suffered from migraines.
One thing we do know is that earlier in the summer of 1892 (the murders occurred in August) Andrew reported that his house was robbed. Lizzie, her sister, Emma, and their maid were home at the time. Andrew reported that the thief must have slipped past them up to Abby Borden’s bedroom, stole some jewelry and about 40 dollars. It occurred in broad daylight, without anyone having seen the thief. A short time later, Andrew asked the police to drop the investigation, and the case was never solved.
What do you think? Mental illness? Building rage due to a terribly dysfunctional family? Or was there another culprit and Lizzie is actually innocent, though suspected because of her odd behavior?
Info from Lizzie Borden: A case book of family and crime in the 1890’s, Joyce G. Williams, J. Eric Smithburn, M.Jeanne Peterson
and from a tour of the property: http://www.lizzie-borden.com/
Did he suspect Lizzie of the theft? Did Lizzie actually steal the money and items? Or was there a thief, who possibly came back later and killed Abby and Andrew Borden? Questions, questions, questions. If only we had a time machine and could send a couple good detectives and a crime scene investigation team back. Lacking that, all we can do is speculate. Which is sort of fun in itself.
If, however, it was a psychological illness that had some genetic component, Lizzie may have inherited it, which may have contributed to the death of Andrew and Abby Borden, (assuming Lizzie did kill them—legally, she did not). Certainly the woman was an odd duck. She had a penchant for staring in such a way as to make people uncomfortable. Those who knew her believed it was an attempt to establish control. She was also known for petty thefts, although never charged. Storekeepers and the like would merely go to Andrew, who would pay for whatever trinket Lizzie took. A sign of mental illness, or just a way for Lizzie to get what she wanted when the $4 a week allowance her father gave her didn’t cover it?
Anyone who’s read Slip Into Something Victorian for a time knows that I’m fascinated by murder. Can’t tell you why, but I’m drawn to read about it, thus the Lizzie Borden blog and a few others. Today, it’s Dr. Chapman, which isn’t technically a Victorian murder, having occurred in 1832. But I figure that’s close enough, and certainly the story of it went on into the Victorian Era. This information came exclusively from the book, The Murder of Dr. Chapman, by Linda Wolfe–great book!
Basically it’s the triangle love story that ends up in tragedy, one we’ve heard time and time again. Wife falls in love with another man, husband ends up dead. Here are some of the facts of the the story-which is true, of course!
1.) The wife, Lucretia was a teacher and mother. At the time of the murder was approximately 43 years old. Her lover, Lino, was approximately 22. In today’s parlance that makes Lucretia a cougar. A murderous one. Or a woman in the throes of a horrible mid-life crisis.
2.) Lino was Cuban.
3.) Lino was living at the Chapman’s home at the time of the murder, with Dr. Chapman’s approval. He was a conman, who told the Chapmans his father was a Mexican general and the governor of California. The Chapmans believed him.
4.) The doctor attending Dr. Chapman believed that he was suffering from Cholera Morbus (the Cholera that killed massive amounts of people had yet to hit the U.S, or England for that matter. Cholera Morbus was a summertime illness and I personally suspect it was food poisoning brought on by poor food preservation). It was considered a mild stomach complaint. Except that he got worse and worse and it killed him.
5.) Nine days after Chapman died, Lucretia and Lino married. Lino declared that he needed money for their honeymoon. He took from her jewelry, silver, horses and left for Philadelphia and other cities to sell it. She never saw her items again, although technically they weren’t hers anymore regardless. What was her husbands became hers-then became Lino’s when she married him.
6.) It was after this the Lucretia started to realize she may have been taken for a ride. Investigation revealed he was not where he said he was, he appeared not to be who he said he was, and she sent letters scolding him for both. One letter unfortunately fell into the hands of the police with the line “But no, Lino. . .I am constrained to acknowledge that I do not believe that God will permit either you or me to be happy this side of the grave.” That and other circumstances brought about the arrest and trial of both Lino and Lucretia for murder.
7.) A pharmacist testified in court that Lino bought a quarter pound of arsenic. The doctor who attended Chapman testified that it was possible that arsenic poisoning had caused a majority of the symptoms of the “illness” that killed Chapman. That and the autopsy conducted with the “opinion” of an expert was all that they could go on to determine if Chapman died of arsenic poisioning. There was no forensic test at this period that could be conclusive. The Marsh Test to detect arsenic, was not used successfully in a murder trial until 1840.
8..) The two were tried separately. During her trial, the public by and large believed that Lucretia was innocent. Much of the more damning information was kept from her trial and she was acquitted.
9) The damning testimony came out at Lino’s trial. He was convicted and later hanged. The damning testimony came before the public, who changed their minds about Lucretia. Whether guilty or not-you can read the book and make your own decision-she lost credibility with the public and lost all her pupils. Between that and Lino’s spending before she stopped it, she eventually lost everything. She drifted off into obscurity and died ten years later flat broke.
These are the facts and it’s a far more interesting story than what I can put out in bullet points. For those interested in the criminal justice system and Philadelphia it’s very interesting to see how it worked at this point in time. As for me, well reading any Victorian history is useful, and this particularly so because it helped solidify some ideas for a future book. Hint-there will be arsenic!
Every year I take the week (or two) after Christmas as a vacation from Life. I play computer games, avoid family (all but those living at my house), friends, the internet, television, radio, newspapers. This year though, the vacation stretched longer and finally my husband and I decided we needed to get out of the house. Where did we go? Well naturally to see Lizzie Borden’s house!
I’ve spent the majority of my life in New England, so I pretty much grew up with the lore of Lizzie Borden, along with the famous ditty, “Lizzie Borden took an axe, gave her mother 40 whacks, when she was done she gave her father 41”. I’m not quite sure if this is something the rest of the U.S knows about, never mind other areas of the world. So for those who don’t know the story–a little history. In 1892, Fall River Massachusetts, the police were called to the home of Andrew and Abby Borden. When they got there they discovered a horrific murder, even by today’s standards. Abby died in the upstairs guest room, Andrew on the parlor sofa. Abby had been hit by a sharp instrument in the back of the head many, many times. Andrew in the front of the head, pretty much obliterating his face. His nose was gone, an eyeball cut in half. If you look at the pictures (I don’t have one, but they do at the house) you can only make out Andrew’s face by finding his ear, and then his chin. What is left is indiscernible.
The only plausible suspect was Andrew’s 32 year-old-daughter Lizzie.
At the time of the murder, there were 5 people living at the house–Andrew, Abby (his second wife, and stepmother to his two daughters) Emma (his older daughter and 10 years Lizzie’s senior), Lizzie, and the maid Bridget. Emma was away and had been for almost two weeks. Bridget had nothing against her employers. A relative staying with them for one night had only amiable relations with the Bordens. That left Lizzie. Lizzie did NOT have amiable relations with Andrew and Abby. In fact, she called Abby Mrs. Borden.
I give the police credit. They did run down leads, they did try to find other viable suspects. This was 1892 and the idea that anyone, never mind a woman and daughter, could do something so heinous was difficult to believe. But in the end, no one else had any motive, never mind real opportunity, to kill the two. The doors of the house were always locked. Although Andrew was mean (in Victorian parlance, meaning stingy) he was considered an honest man. He had no enemies. It’s difficult to establish an exact time of death for Abby, but due to testimony by Lizzie, Bridget and neighbors etc, we know Andrew died probably in a 20 minute time period, between 12 noon and 12:20. It’s just inconceivable that an outsider could have caused all that damage in the time period, never mind kill Abby (it is assumed a good hour and a half before, based upon stomach contents–but this was 1892 and I’m wary of the forensic abilities back then) as well. Without anyone hearing?
So Lizzie was brought to trial. And acquitted. Why? Lack of evidence perhaps, but without having read the entire proceedings (I’m in the process right now) I would speculate that it was due to the time period and the thinking of women back then. In 1893 a jury of Lizzie’s “peers” consisted of 12 men–women did not serve on juries at this time. She was a daughter and rather pretty and from a “good” home. No one wanted to believe she could have done such a thing, never mind 12 middle-aged men. So she was let go and went on to inherit her parents’ money and live many more years, even while most of Fall River believed her guilty, possibly up to and including her sister. The jurors were so happy with their verdict that they had a picture taken of them the day of the acquittal and gave it to Lizzie. It (or a copy, I’m not sure) currently hangs in the house.
I have always believed Lizzie did it. Never a doubt in my mind. From watching way too much television, I’ve concluded that viciousness of the murders and the fact that the murderer obliterated Andrew’s face indicates extreme anger and a personal relationship. The medical examiner determined that both victims died with the first blow. But the axe was swung an estimated 10 blows on one victim and 20 on another (I’m not completely sure of my facts). If this was just murder, you’d have though 2-4 blows would have sufficed.
But why? Well I knew from bits and pieces that Andrew was a skin-flint. But exactly how bad I didn’t know until I visited the house. Understand that Andrew at the time of his death was worth about 1/2 million dollars. In 1892. But the house was small–smaller than what I currently live in and we are middle-class–for 5 grown adults. Moreoever while it had radiators, thus a certain degree of warmth, there was no gas-lighting (never mind electricity) and no hot running water. Andrew refused to have either installed in the house–it was a waste. My characters in Wicked Woman had hot running water and gas lighting in 1855! And I researched this. Although both were new at the time in, Boston, just an hour or so away, the city had both. And we’re not comparing the “luxuries” to something like cable television. Women in this period were required to take care of the house, even if they had a maid. To clean a house without hot water? Oh yes, I can see Lizzie’s rage.
The other thing that struck me was the floor plan of the house. When Andrew bought it in 1870 or so, it was a two family house (which I found every enlightening, because I’ve got a similar layout for a book I’m currently plotting. Nice to know they exisited back then!). He had it made into a single family house, but still, there are no hall ways. This is fine for the lower floor. It makes sense to go from the dining room into the kitchen or the sitting area or front room. But the layout was the same upstairs for the bedrooms. Thus in order for Emma to get to her room, she had to go through her sister’s, Lizzies. In addition, there was a connecting door between Lizzie’s room and her parents. It was locked, bolted and never used. That makes sense but Lizzie also had her bed kitty-cornered in the room, wedged against the door. It makes me wonder if at some point there was some sort of sexual abuse.
There’s more–everyone in the house locked the doors to their bedrooms. Also, I wonder in the Victorian era why two not-horribly-ugly women would not marry? Ever–not even after their father died. It’s strange to me. It was strange to the people back then as well. Many referred to the Borden’s as “odd” and “peculiar”.
I could go on and on and on, but there are books out there. What I’m reading right now is Lizzie Borden: a Case Book of Family and Crime in the 1890’s, by Joyce G. Williams J. Eric Smithburn and M. Jeanne Petersen. You could too, if you’re ever in the area visit the home. You can take a tour–or you can actually sleep there! It’s a Bed and Breakfast now. Me, I happily took the tour, but sleeping? I don’t know. That’s something I’d have to give a lot of thought to!
Here’s the link to the house, for more information http://www.lizzie-borden.com/ I’ve also added a few more photos to our Picture Page–take a look!
***I’ve had a complaint that I didn’t include photos of the victims. I don’t actually have them, but if anyone’s interested here’s a site: http://www.lizzieandrewborden.com/CrimeLibrary/Crime%20Scene%20Photos.htm
These are, by the way, the photos that the owners of the bed and breakfast used to re-create the rooms to the best of their abilities.