claret–blood, especially in boxing. This is a term that for some reason I generally associate with the Regency era in England. However, it appears to have been used quite a bit in the U.S., from 1831 on. Also, claret jug, which is the bleeding nose, first mentioned in 1859, but I expect it was used earlier.
I’m working on the language in my next book and found this in The Dictionary of Cliches by James Roger. I’d have thought “And how” was pretty much a 1960’s thing because I heard it a lot when growing up. It generally means “that’s for sure” or “you better believe it”, which is similar to other slang of the era “you bet” “you bet your life”. And how goes back at least to 1865, when it’s mentioned in a letter written by Bayard Taylor, journalist, to Edmund Stedman, poet.
chuck: food, grub, provisions. Originated probably in the West. 1850, used often throughout the century. According to one reference from Wild Indians ” chuck” it was a universal Indian term for all of the plains tribes. “The boys finished the work for the day, and gathered around the campfire to eat their chuck.”
chuck, as a verb: 1808, throughout the century. to throw, pitch.
Interestingly, the term “chow” which I’d have thought was an American Western Victorian term, is nautical in origin, and used mostly in the 20th century. I admit that I may have inadvertently used the wrong term in my Westerns. Man, there is so much to learn!
choker: 1) a cravat. 1848. “He dressed in his finest clothes for dinner, including a white choker around his neck.” 2) a tight, high collar, 1869. 3) a clergyman (who often wore collars of this kind). 1886
Chippy–a sexually promiscuous woman, a prostitute, 1886, though the end of the century and into the 20th century.
I have never heard of this. Generally I try to avoid real profanity in my weekly posts, but I’m making an exception to this, because I was kind of floored. I’m going to use the actual sentence in the book for an example instead of making up one of my own, from Bangin’on Rhine, “Full many a chippy had he banged.” Banged, used that way, I had considered modern terminology. Apparently I am wrong. It goes back to the 1700’s. However, there are very few references in the 19th century. Mostly it’s a 20th century use, where as chippy does seem to be a late 19th century slang term.
chip: money, often in the phrase “in the chips.” 1840, many references throughout the period. “After playing poker with Lee for an hour, he was left without a chip.”
A person could also “cash in” (or pass in or hand in)his chips, which meant to die. 1879. The first reference talks about how this was used in Southern Colorado, so I imagine it started as a Western term.
chip, as a verb, was usually a bet, in poker 1876. Additionally one could “chip in” as early as 1861, which was used as we do today–to give money to. contribute.